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Circular Business Models Card Deck

This deck is an accompaniment to the Circular Business Model Toolkit developed by Forum for the Future and Unilever. It provides details on each of the 10 business model innovations identified as drivers for a circular economy.

Definitions, customer benefits, and market growth opportunities are provided on 'cards' for each business model. The circular business models include closed-loop recycling, downcycling, upcycling, industrial symbiosis, and collection services - these are instruments of translating products and services designed for reuse into attractive value propositions. Enabling business models are not inherently circular but can enable or enhance circularity, and these include product as a service, personalisation, lock-in, modularity, and local loop.

Case studies which use circular and/or enabling business models are also provided, and include companies such as The North Face, Nike, M&S, Timberland and Omni United, DuPont and P&G, Terracycle and Febreeze, Nespresso, Philips, and LEGO.

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